MIDRP Overview History & Achievements Current Research Efforts External Programs

Bacterial

Diarrhea Prevention
Diarrhea afflicts up to 50% of troops deployed to high-risk areas. Currently, no guaranteed protective measures exist, and the global problem of antimicrobial resistance may limit treatment options. Candidate vaccines for three major causes of diarrhea (E. coli, Campylobacter and Shigella) are being developed and evaluated by the MIDRP.

Rickettsial Disease
Scrub typhus is caused by a bite from an infected mite or chigger and can cause severe fever with a long convalescence or death. The disease is prevalent in Asia, Australia, and many Pacific Islands. Outbreaks occurred in US marines training at Camp Fuji Japan in 2000 and then again in 2001.

Wound Infection Research
MIDRP's Wound Infection (W) Program is primarily focused on development of preventive and treatment measures to control wound infections and sepsis and nosocomial transmission of bacteria following blast wound injuries and burns.


Parasitic

Malaria Drugs
Malaria has historically caused more casualties than enemy fire in deployments to tropical regions. Impact on soldiers ranges from loss of 14 man-days to death and can affect more than 80% of an unprotected force. The MIDRP is developing new drugs to prevent infection and accelerate recovery from severe and multidrug-resistant malaria infections.

Malaria Vaccines
Malaria has historically caused more casualties than enemy fire in deployments to tropical regions. Impact on soldiers ranges from loss of 14 man-days to death and can affect more than 80% of an unprotected force. The MIDRP is developing new vaccines to prevent infection.

Leishmaniasis
Hundreds of military personnel stationed in Iraq have been diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected sandflies. The most common forms are cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin lesions, and visceral leishmaniasis, which affects the internal organs of the body. The MIDRP is developing diagnostic and treatment devices as well as personal protective measures.


Viral

HIV Prevention
Military personnel can become infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) via blood transfusions, accidental blood exposure while providing humanitarian assistance or sexual exposure. HIV impacts troop strength of U.S. and allied forces, and the political and economic stability of developing nations. Research focuses on the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine. Field sites have been established in Africa and Southeast Asia. Management is shared by the MIDRP and the National Institutes of Health.

Flavivirus Vaccines
Dengue fever is a painful disease caused by a flavivirus transmitted by a bite from an infected mosquito. Dengue is a leading cause of hospital admission in units operating in the tropics. There is currently no vaccine or drug to prevent the disease. The MIDRP manages a program for pathogenesis studies, diagnostics, and vaccine development to protect against the four types of dengue virus.

Lethal Viruses Countermeasures
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and other Hantavirus diseases are transmitted by contact with rodents. Endemic throughout Asia and Europe, HFRS requires evacuation and long-term extensive care, and has caused thousands of occurrences of troop morbidity and mortality. The MIDRP is pursuing DNA vaccines to prevent HFRS and other lethal viruses.


Information & Devices

Vector Control
Seventy percent of soldiers experience problems related to biting insects. The current military repellent is a greasy compound that dissolves plastic, is removed by abrasion or wetting, and is not popular with soldiers. The MIDRP is developing a new standard military insect repellent that is effective and acceptable to the user. Other efforts focus on the identification and control of the insect vectors of dengue and malaria and a sandfly vector control system.

Diagnostic
There is an urgent demand for field-worthy methods to rapidly diagnose infectious diseases. Timely and accurate diagnosis will permit appropriate medical treatments and other protective measures.